Ladrillos sólidos, la base para construir alianzas público-privadas exitosas

Invertir en infraestructura es fundamental para promover el desarrollo inclusivo en América Latina y el Caribe. Estas inversiones requieren enormes cantidades de recursos, motivo por el que las alianzas público-privadas (APPs) son consideradas herramientas tan valiosas para la implementación de políticas públicas como infraestructura, especialmente en escenarios de presión fiscal.

Pero para construir experiencias APPs sólidas y exitosas, es necesario tener buenos y robustos ladrillos.

La situación en la que se encuentra Brasil no podría favorecer más la consideración de APPs. Es más: la experiencia brasileña podría ser utilizada como referencia por otros países. Sin embargo, las acciones prioritarias, los ladrillos, deben ser debatidas para garantizar el éxito de las asociaciones para el desarrollo de la región.

Medidas recientemente adoptadas en Brasil han reforzado la importancia de las APPs en la agenda política. La Ley 13.334, del 16 de septiembre de 2016 consolida el concepto de “acuerdos de asociación” con el fin de abarcar a todas las formas de acuerdos contractuales entre el Gobierno y el sector privado para la ejecución de empresas públicas, independientemente de si han sido o no concesionadas. Este nuevo proyecto de ley también ha abierto las puertas al amplio concepto de las APPs.

El escenario económico y político actual de Brasil demuestra que es necesario continuar la conversación de las alianzas público-privadas. No obstante, vale la pena revisar las prácticas adoptadas hasta el momento y proponer mejorías a los programas y proyectos ya implementados. Resulta urgente invertir en enormes esfuerzos de preparación de proyectos, dedicando recursos humanos y materiales y tiempo a cada una de las etapas de las iniciativas. Tales esfuerzos serán necesarios si se quiere evitar que se frustren los inversionistas, a la vez que mitigarían los riesgos de fallas y deficiencias en la ejecución de los proyectos.

Es necesario simplificar el proceso que deben atravesar los consultores para participar en licitaciones de los proyectos, ya que su intervención aporta conocimientos técnicos a cualquier iniciativa. Es imperativo que dichos procesos sean competitivos y rigurosos para poder mantener los niveles de competitividad requeridos. También debe asegurarse la implementación de mejores prácticas y normas de contabilidad preexistentes en aquellas asociaciones que exigen pagos públicos de largo plazo, evitando crear obligaciones indeseadas en cuentas públicas que pudieran convertirse en una futura carga sobre las finanzas públicas.

Las asociaciones público-privadas deben ser transparentes

La transparencia en todos los niveles es una de las claves del éxito de una APP. Por lo tanto, se deben crear mecanismos para garantizar el libre acceso a la información de proyectos e iniciativas públicos. Estos mecanismos deberían reforzar la interlocución entre actores del mercado, agentes de control y representantes de la sociedad civil, desde su concepción inicial, licitación, hasta la ejecución final de cada uno de los contratos. El gobierno nacional, los estados y las municipalidades deberían considerar maneras de articular el intercambio y la difusión coordinada de datos, aprovechando las nuevas tecnologías y conceptos, como “big data” y “open data”, ofreciendo acceso a la información de ejecución de APPs en tiempo real.

Asimismo, se debe mejorar el marco regulatorio, empoderando a las estructuras regulatorias y creando mecanismos que promuevan la efectiva provisión de servicios de calidad, en un escenario de máxima seguridad legal para los inversionistas y gestores públicos. Cabe mencionar que la mayoría de los proyectos desarrollados por mecanismos de APPs ya está regulada y sometida a la autoridad de diversas agencias.

Por último, se deben eliminar eventuales barreras de entrada para nuevos actores en el mercado de las APPs, promoviendo la participación de un mayor número de potenciales contratistas con capacidad técnica y operativa. Las expectativas ahora se centran en el rol que podría ser asumido por las empresas medianas nacionales y compañías extranjeras.
Cabe también considerar la extensión del sistema de APPs basada en indicadores de desempeño y riesgo compartido con otras formas de contrato y diversas esferas del gobierno.

Existe una mayor preocupación por los “resultados” en detrimento de los “medios”, perseguidos por los socios privados, para lograr los objetivos de un contrato dado. De hecho, ya se han llevado adelante varias iniciativas en esta dirección y es posible identificar una creciente atención a la calidad de los proyectos públicos, así como al diálogo entre los agentes involucrados y la racionalización de los recursos. Sin embargo, deben enfrentarse grandes dificultades en el corto plazo para dar impulso a la mejora de la situación institucional necesaria para desarrollar APPs en Brasil.

Estos elementos indican puntos que requieren atención. Varios programas de capacitación, seminarios y publicaciones han sido implementados con el apoyo de organismos como el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Generar soluciones y presentar alternativas de inversión en capital humano, así como consolidar las instituciones públicas, gobernanza y transparencia, son acciones urgentes y esenciales para preparar el camino hacia el éxito de las APPs.

Estas acciones no son todos los ladrillos necesarios para generar APPs fuertes y sólidas, pero pueden representar robustos cimientos sobre los que construir nuevas y promisorias rutas para América Latina y el Caribe.

Un libro que resume el contexto actual de las APPs en Brasil estará disponible en la página web del Ministerio de Planificación, Desarrollo y Gestión.

Lee el artículo original aquí.

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